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14 Common Classroom Management Mistakes and How to Fix Them

Classroom management is a multifaceted task that requires balancing various aspects of teaching. Mistakes can occur across different dimensions—emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and operational.

Each type of mistake impacts the classroom dynamic differently. Understanding and correcting these mistakes will greatly help you foster a more effective and positive learning environment.

Understanding Emotional, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Operational Mistakes

1. Emotional Mistakes

Emotional mistakes in classroom management involve failures that primarily affect the emotional climate of the class. This can include failing to recognize and respond to students' emotional needs, showing favoritism, or handling stress and frustration inappropriately.

Such mistakes can create a hostile or unstable classroom atmosphere, leading to decreased student engagement and trust. Correcting these mistakes requires developing emotional awareness, practicing empathy, and consistently applying emotional regulation techniques.

2. Cognitive Mistakes

Cognitive mistakes refer to errors in judgment or thinking processes that affect decision-making in the classroom. This can involve maintaining biased expectations (positive or negative) for certain students, underestimating or overestimating students' abilities, or rigidly adhering to plans when flexibility is needed.

To overcome cognitive mistakes, you should engage in reflective practice, pursue continuous professional development, and utilize various educational methodologies to meet the diverse learning needs of your students.

3. Behavioural Mistakes

Behavioural mistakes are directly related to the actions or inactions of the teacher that lead to management inefficiencies or communication failures.

Examples include inconsistent application of rules, inadequate classroom routines, or poor time management. Correcting these mistakes typically involves setting clear expectations, developing consistent routines, and engaging in proactive behavior management strategies.

4. Operational Mistakes

Operational mistakes encompass logistical errors that can disrupt the flow of teaching. This can include poor management of educational resources and ineffective use of technology.

Improving operational efficiency generally requires better planning, appropriate technology integration, and streamlining processes to maximize class time.

Improving Classroom Management by Addressing Mistakes

Understanding these mistakes and adopting practical measures to correct them can significantly improve the quality of your classroom. Each of these categories of mistakes presents unique challenges but also opportunities for growth and development.

The key is to continually seek knowledge that will lead you to excellent classroom management.

14 Classroom Management Mistakes and How to Fix Them

Effective classroom management, more than just maintaining control and order, primarily involves your ability to foster an environment that promotes a love and interest in learning.

Below we present 14 critical mistakes frequently made in classroom management and provide practical solutions for you to correct them.

1. Failure to Establish Clear Expectations


A teacher starts a new semester assuming that students understand the classroom procedures and the required standards of behaviour and discipline, but soon confusion and interruptions begin.

What to Do:

At the beginning of the school year, take the time to clearly outline your expectations for your classes and the main routines of your teaching style. Use simple and concrete terms and, if possible, give clear examples of expected positive behaviours. Regularly reinforce these expectations and provide reminders in the classroom whenever necessary to help students remember and adhere to the expected behaviours.

2. Inconsistent Rules and Consequences


A teacher sometimes ignores students talking out of turn and misbehaving but other times reprimands them, leading to confusion and a perception of unfairness among students.

What to Do:

Establish clear and consistent consequences for inappropriate behavior. These consequences should be clearly established and communicated from Day 1 of class. Apply the rules uniformly to all students to maintain fairness and credibility. Regularly review these rules with students and make adjustments if certain rules are consistently problematic or misunderstood.

3. Failure to Judge the Cognitive and Emotional Needs of Students


A teacher plans lessons that are too complex, causing frustration among students who have more difficulty keeping up and understanding. Or plans lessons that are too simple, leading to boredom among more advanced students.

What to Do:

Regularly assess students' understanding and level of participation. These assessments can help adapt lesson plans to meet the varied cognitive and emotional needs of students, ensuring that everyone remains engaged and adequately challenged.

4. Lack of Empathy


A teacher consistently responds to students' questions or concerns with impatience, disdain, or sarcasm (often without realizing it), which can make students feel undervalued, hesitant, and insecure about participating.

What to Do:

Practice active listening and empathetic communication. When a student expresses a concern or asks a question, give them your full attention. Acknowledge the student's feelings and respond thoughtfully. This approach not only validates the student's feelings but also encourages a more open and respectful classroom environment where everyone feels safe and interested in participating.

5. Not Analyzing Your Own Personal Biases


A teacher may unconsciously assume that students from certain backgrounds have similar levels of ability or interest, which can negatively influence expectations and interactions.

What to Do:

Teachers should first recognize that everyone has biases, even if unconscious. To address this, educators can engage in self-reflection exercises, seek feedback from colleagues, and participate in professional development focused on cultural competence. Regularly examining case studies or reflecting on classroom interactions can help teachers become more aware of their biases and work actively to mitigate their impact on interactions with students.

6. Cognitive Overload


A teacher presents a new complex concept with many details in a single lesson, leading to confusion and frustration among students.

What to Do:

When introducing new material, simplify instructions and break tasks into manageable segments. Start with the main ideas and gradually introduce more complex elements. Use visual aids, summaries, and checks for understanding to ensure comprehension. This approach helps prevent student overload and improves your ability to convey new information effectively.

7. Overreacting to Interruptions


A teacher reacts severely to minor interruptions, such as students whispering to each other, which escalates the situation and further disrupts the class.

What to Do:

Develop techniques to stay calm and respond proportionally to classroom interruptions. Techniques can include taking a brief moment to breathe deeply before responding, using a system of non-verbal signals (previously agreed upon) to handle minor interruptions silently, or implementing a tiered approach to discipline that matches the level of interruption. This teaches students appropriate ways to manage their behavior.

8. Ignoring the Power of Non-Verbal Communication


A teacher consistently exhibits closed body language—crossed arms, lack of eye contact—which can signal disengagement or disapproval to students, even if unintentional.

What to Do:

Teachers should be aware of and consciously use positive non-verbal cues, such as open body posture, nodding, smiling, and maintaining appropriate eye contact. These signals can encourage students, promote a more inclusive atmosphere, and enhance communication effectiveness. Incorporating gestures and facial expressions that convey understanding and enthusiasm can also significantly increase the clarity and impact of the message.

9. Not Adapting to Different Teaching Styles


A teacher only uses traditional lectures to teach a diverse classroom, resulting in disengagement among students who could benefit from other approaches, such as visual or kinesthetic learning.

What to Do:

Employ different teaching methods to cater to various learning styles. This can include integrating visual aids, hands-on activities, group discussions, and multimedia resources into lessons. By diversifying teaching methods, you engage a broader range of students, increasing the overall effectiveness of your lessons.

10. Not Using Active Learning Methodologies

Active learning methodologies involve teaching strategies that actively engage students in the learning process through problem-solving, discussion, or hands-on activities, as opposed to passive information reception.


A classroom where the teacher primarily lectures, with little to no interaction or participation from students in the learning process.

What to Do:

Integrate active learning techniques, such as cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and using "think-pair-share." These strategies not only make learning more engaging but also improve retention and comprehension by involving students in processing the material through discussion, reflection, and application.

11. Neglecting Student Engagement


A teacher delivers content mainly through direct instruction, without involving students in the learning process, leading to decreased attention and participation.

What to Do:

Increase student engagement by incorporating interactive and participatory teaching methods. This can include using technology, games, or group projects that require active collaboration among students. Such methods not only make learning more engaging but also help develop relationship-building, critical thinking, and creative skills.

12. Disregarding the Importance of Giving Regular Feedback to Students


A teacher provides feedback only during test returns or report cards, missing opportunities for continuous developmental guidance.

What to Do:

Provide regular, both formal and informal, feedback to students. This should include positive reinforcement that recognizes and encourages students' efforts and achievements, as well as constructive feedback that is specific and actionable. This helps students understand what they did well and what they can improve on. Incorporating feedback as a routine part of lessons allows students to continuously reflect on their learning and make adjustments aimed at their growth—both academically and personally.

13. Poor Time Management in Class


A teacher spends a disproportionate amount of class time on a single activity or topic, resulting in rushed or incomplete coverage of other essential content.

What to Do:

Effective time management involves planning each lesson with clear objectives and a realistic schedule. Use a variety of teaching methods to keep lessons dynamic and engaging. Be prepared to adapt if certain activities take more or less time than expected. Using timers can also help keep activities on track. Periodically review how your class time is being used and adjust plans to ensure all necessary material is adequately covered without overwhelming students.

14. Underestimating the Value of Reflection


A teacher consistently moves through the curriculum without allocating time for students to reflect on what they are learning, which can hinder deeper understanding and retention.

What to Do:

Incorporate regular reflection opportunities into the curriculum. This can be achieved through "wrap-up" sessions at the end of lessons or pair discussions where students summarize what they have learned, ask questions, and connect the material to broader themes or personal experiences. Reflection helps students consolidate and expand their learning and provides feedback to teachers on students' understanding and interests, which can aid in future instructional decisions.


Recommended Books

To further enhance your classroom management skills and deepen your understanding of effective teaching strategies, these books are not only insightful but also practical, providing both theoretical frameworks and real-world applications that can transform your classroom dynamics.

The Classroom Management Book - by Harry K. Wong and Rosemary T. Wong

This book offers a wealth of practical strategies to help teachers create a positive learning environment, establish routines, and maintain order in the classroom. It’s a great resource for both new and experienced educators.

Doug Lemov provides actionable techniques that are proven to be effective in enhancing student engagement and achievement. This book includes a DVD of teaching clips demonstrating the techniques in action, making it a practical guide for implementing new strategies.

This book focuses on managing classroom behaviour with clear, consistent strategies and establishing a classroom environment conducive to learning. It’s particularly helpful for dealing with challenging behaviours and creating a respectful and productive classroom culture.

Classroom Management That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Every Teacher - by Robert J. Marzano, Jana S. Marzano, and Debra J. Pickering

This research-based book provides an in-depth look at the strategies that have been proven effective in classroom management across various grade levels and subjects. It’s a great resource for teachers looking to ground their practices in solid research.



Effective classroom management is essential for creating an educational environment where students can thrive and educators can teach with confidence and creativity. Recognizing and addressing common classroom management mistakes is a crucial step toward achieving this goal. By understanding the roots of these mistakes—whether they are emotional, cognitive, behavioural, or operational—teachers can implement targeted strategies to overcome them. Happy teaching!


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